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Macular Pucker

What is a macular pucker?

A macular pucker is a type of scar tissue that forms on the macula and can cause distortion or blurry central vision.

What is the macula?

The majority of the interior of an eye is filled with a vitreous substance that helps maintain the shape. The macula is located in the center of the retina and is responsible for seeing fine details.

How does macular pucker form?

The primary cause of a macular pucker is age.

As we age, the vitreous substance pulls away from the retina, which is usually harmless to the surface of the retina.

This pulling away can spark a healing process in which the retina tries to heal the damage, sometimes forming scar tissue over the damaged area on the surface of the retina. This scar tissue is referred to as an epiretinal membrane, and is firmly attached. […]

Myopia Treatment Options

According to the National Eye Institute (NEI), myopia is a “common type of refractive error where close objects appear clearly, but distant objects appear blurry” and myopia treatment options range from common glasses or contacts to myopia surgery.

What is myopia?

Commonly referred to as nearsightedness, myopia essentially means that the eyeball is unable focus the image properly on the retina, causing what you are seeing to focus at a point in front of the retina.

This could be because the eyeball is too long from front to back or because the cornea is too curved for the eye length. It could also be caused by an overly thick lens, or some combination of issues relating to the lens, eyeball length, and cornea.

Whatever the cause, the reality is that your vision will be impacted in a negative manner, causing you to have […]

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca is commonly known as dry eye syndrome, and refers to a disorder that causes dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea.

The accepted medical understanding of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS) has changed from the belief that KCS is due to a state of aqueous tear insufficiency, which means that the tear gland isn’t producing enough hydration to keep the entire conjunctiva and cornea covered.

The current medical stance on KCS attributes the problem to several factors combined, and the accepted cause is a combination of nerve cell (or nerve tissue) nutrient deficiencies, inflammation of the ocular surface, and Meibomian gland dysfunction.

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca Symptoms

Dry eye symptoms associated with KCS include a pulling sensation, pressure behind the eyes, irritation and or ocular burning sensations, stinging, photophobia, itching, blurred vision, or a constant feeling that something is in your eye.

The symptoms of KCS can […]

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is a disease associated with aging that can gradually reduce central vision and comes in two forms – it may be referred to as AMD or ARMD (age-related macular degeneration).  The dry (non-neovascular form of the disease typically has few symptoms in its early phase, but can become progressively symptomatic over an extended period of time.  The wet (neovascular) stage, is more severe and can cause rapid severe vision loss if left untreated.  Early detection when the disease is still in the dry stages, can be helpful to prevent severe vision loss.

Dry macular degeneration affects between 85 to 90 percent of ARMD patients, with wet macular degeneration affecting just 10 percent of ARMD cases.  People over the age of 65 and Caucasian women are at a higher risk for macular degeneration.  Smokers have a higher rate of […]

What is Central Serous Retinopathy?

Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) sometimes referred to as central serous choroidopathy, is an eye disease that causes visual impairment and usually occurs in one eye and is often temporary.  Characterized by leakage of fluid under the retina, CSR has the propensity to accumulate under the central macula when active.  Fluid leakage is believed to come from the choroid (a tissue layer with blood vessels under the retina).  When tiny areas of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) become defective, fluid builds up and accumulates under the RPE – this causes a small detachment to form under the retina.  CRE usually affects just one eye, but has the possibility of affecting both eyes.

Symptoms of CSR

Distorted, blurred, or dim vision
Blind spot in central vision
Distortion of straight lines in the affected eye
White objects may appear to have a brownish tinge or may be […]

Corneal Erosion

The cornea is composed of five layers.

Epithelium Layer – an exceedingly thin surface layer of cells in the cornea’s outermost region, comprising about 10 percent of the tissue’s thickness.  Its primary function is to block the passage of foreign material and provide a smooth surface that absorbs oxygen and cell nutrients from tears and then distributes them to the rest of the cornea.

Bowman’s Layer – compromised of strong layered protein fibers called collagen, the Bowman’s layer is a tough layer of basement membrane that keeps the cornea from swelling forward.

Stroma – Compromising about 90% of the cornea’s thickness, the stroma consists of 79% water and 16% highly arranged collagen fibers and supporting keratocytes, and contains no blood vessels.  The collagen gives the cornea its strength, elasticity, and form

Descemet’s Membrane – located below the stroma, Descemet’s membrane is a thin […]

Corneal Abrasion vs Laceration

The cornea is the transparent layer forming the front of the eye that transmits and focuses light into the eye.  A corneal abrasion is a scratch to the surface of the cornea.  Symptoms of a corneal abrasion and corneal laceration include redness, pain, light sensitivity, excessive squinting, and the feeling of a foreign body in the eye.  With a corneal laceration, the pain will be more severe.

Corneal abrasions are typically caused by minor trauma to the eye and may occur with contact lens use when a fingernail scratches or pokes your eye, or if something like dirt, sand, or sawdust, or some other foreign body gets trapped under your eyelid.  Corneal abrasions can also be caused by rubbing your eye too hard, wearing old contact lenses, and while participating in other everyday activities.  About 25% of corneal abrasions occur […]